Selasa, 26 Mei 2009


At the end of the chapter, students should be able to :

  • Explain the interrelationships between the components of the physical environment


The earth have a four component :

1. The atmosphere is the layer of air that surrounds the earth

2. The lithosphere consist of landform and rocks found on the earth

3. The biosphere is made up of the living environment

4. The hydrosphere is made up of rivers, lakes and oceans


Landform and rocks are created and changed by processes beneath and on the earth surface, consist of :

1. Rivers are streams which flow from high ground to low ground include waterfalls and deltas.

2. Mountain is an area of high ground, usually more than 600 metres high. It often has step slopes and a narrow top or peak. Where a few mountains are located close together, they form a mountain range.

3. Hill Is an area of high ground, usually less than 600 metres high. It is typically rounded in shape and has gentle slopes

4. Plain is a broad, flat and low area on the earth surface

5. Plateau is generally a raised area of land with a fairly flat, broad top and steep slopes

Is land formed when a large quantity of magma escapes from a long crack or fault in the earth’s crust and spreads over a very large area

this lava then solidifies on the earth’s surface, and after numerous eruption, these layers of hardened lava result in a plateu. We can found in iceland and greenland

famous and highest plateux in the earth’s are Tibetan Plateau in Tibet

another plateaux is :

1. Colorado Plateau in USA

2. Giza Plateau in Agypth

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