Minggu, 19 Juli 2009



The use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied primarily on barter. Instead, non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economics. When barter did occur, it was usually between either complete strangers or potential enemies.

Many cultures around the world eventually developed the use of commodity money. The shekel was an ancient unit of weight and currency. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. and referred to a specific mass of barley which related other values in a metric such as silver, bronze, copper etc. A barley/shekel was originally both a unit of currency and a unit of weight.[10] Societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia used shell money – usually, the shell of the money cowry (Cypraea moneta) were used.

According to Herodotus, and most modern scholars, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coin.[11] It is thought that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC.[12] Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song Dynasty. These banknotes, known as "jiaozi" evolved from promissory notes used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money, and were used alongside coins. Stockholms Banco first issued banknotes in Europe in 1661.


The word "money" is believed to originate from a temple of Hera, located on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world Hera was often associated with money. The temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place where the mint of Ancient Rome was located.[13] The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni (which means "the one", "unique", "unit", "union", "united") and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" (remind, warn, or instruct) or the Greek word "moneres" (alone, unique).

In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning 'in kind'

Step by Step :

1. Pre-Barter: Period when human can fulfill all human needs.

2. Barter: to exchange goods for other things rather than for money.

- The frailties are as follows:

- The change is often not appropriate.

- That is not a general measurement unit in valuing a commodity or service.

- There is not a way to store general goods.

- There is not a satisfying unit of measurement to note a payment contract in the future.

3. Goods Money: All something, which can make tool trades.

4. Currency Money : money gets to form metal and paper.

5. Bank deposit : money gets to form commercial paper.


anything that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts or something that can be applied for payment or goods buyer, service, ad paying off the debt.


  1. It lasts long.
  2. Community or public are familiar with it.
  3. It is movable, storable, and portable.
  4. The quality of the goods is almost similar in every region.
  5. Easy to divide and its value is persistent.



Is the short of money that is officially issued by the government or central bank, which functions as a means of valid payment, accepted by public and circulates in the community. Currency consists of bank note and coin.

Paper currency consists of:

Bank note is the kind of money that is issued by the Indonesian Bank as a means of exchange and payment.

The excesses of bank note are:

  1. The material in the form of paper is easier to find out and relative cheaper.
  2. The cost of printing is lower.
  3. The government is able to overcome when its circulating in the community is more or less than it should be.

The weaknesses of bank of note:

  1. Easy damaged and torn because its material is paper.
  2. Simply burned down.
  3. Easily forged.
  4. It may simply cause inflation because printing new money is very easy, so that the circulating money is more than the need.


Are the kinds of money made of metal (gold, silver, bronze, copper and aluminum).

Generally, the government to meet the people needs of small change issues them.

The excesses of coins are:

  1. It is sturdy and durable.
  2. It is untangled.
  3. It is movable easily.
  4. Easy to daily transaction is small amount.

The weaknesses of coins are:

  1. The metal supply is limited.
  2. Being able to apply payment only in limited number.
  3. In a large quantity, coins are difficult to carry and move.


Is the balance in the bank that is able to apply as a means of payment anytime.

Kinds of bank deposits


is an order from someone or client who has saving in the bank to cash an amount of money to the party mentioned on the order.

Posted check is one that can be cashed on the date due.

Bad check is one made by someone who does not have account in a bank or who does but the fund is not available.

Check by the name is check that just can be cashed by person that its name exists in check.

Check at a sight is cash able cheque by whom just that takes in to cross a cheque.

Clearing account ticket or bilyet demand deposit.

Is an order from someone who owns a clearing account in a bank, in order that the bank pays by transferring part or whole account appoint.

Payment order

is an order given directly by someone who has a clearing account in a bank in order that the bank pays an amount of money by way if his account to the appointed one.

Telegraphic transfer

Is an order from someone who has an account in a bank on order that the bank pays an amount of money to the account of the party or person appointed by sending a telegram.

The excesses of bank deposits are:

The security of the owner has been guaranteed, because the cash is kept in the bank.

Always receiving interest from the rest of the saving in the bank.

Checkbook or clearing account is easier to carry than a large amount of cash.

The weaknesses of bank deposit are:

Is not valid means of payment.

High risk from forger of money.

Payment using a check in small amount is frequently rejected.


The main function or genuine function

1. A medium of exchange or valid exchange.

Money can be change into everything in the community.

2. A unit of account.

Is a value of goods and service stated with money.

Derivation function

  1. Tools for payment
  2. Is valid means of payment and is commonly effective.
  3. As a device for saving.
  4. Capital for production.
  5. Commyercial trade goods.


Intrinsic value

Is the value of the material applied to make the money. The one who knows exactly the value of the material is the money printer or the government.

Nominal value

Is the value put out on the currency .

Internal/real value

Does the number of goods or service that can be exchanged using the money measure the value of money.

External value

Is the money value measured with a foreign currency.

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