Prehistory is a term often used to describe the period before written history. The early human migrations patterns in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spreads across
In the 10th millennium BC, Invention of agriculture is the earliest given date for the beginning of the ancient era. In the 7th millennium BC, Jiahu culture began in China. By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic civilizations saw the invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. In the 4th millennium BC, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Ukraine-Moldova-Romania region develops. By 3400 BC, "proto-literate" Sumerian cuneiform is spread in the
Main article: Timeline of Ancient history
Brief ancient chronology
The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. In the 24th century BC, Akkadian Empire In the 22nd century BC, the First Intermediate Period of Egypt occurred The time between the 21st to 17th centuries BC around the Nile has been denoted as Middle Kingdom of Egypt. In the 21st century BC, the Sumerian Renaissance occurs. By the 18th century, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt begins.
By 1600 BC, Mycenaean Greece begins to develop. Also by 1600 BC, the beginning of Shang DynastyChina emerges and there is evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. Around 1600 BC, the beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region is seen. The time between the 16th to 11th centuries around the
The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system, preceded by the Bronze Age. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region. During the 13th to 12th centuries, the Ramesside Period occurred. Around c. 1200 BC, the Trojan War was thought to have taken place. By c. 1180 BC, the disintegration of Hittite Empire was underway.
In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrows the last king of Shang Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty is established in China shortly thereafter. In 1000 BC, the Mannaeans Kingdom begins. Around the 10th to 7th centuries, the Neo-Assyrian Empire forms. In 800 BC, the rise of GreekOlympic Games are held. The Ancient Olympic Games city-states begins. In 776 BC, the first recorded origins are unknown, but several legends and myths have survived.
Main article: Classical antiquity
- 753 BC: Founding of Rome (traditional date)
- 745 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III becomes the new king of Assyria. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns
Assyriainto an empire
- 728 BC: Rise of the Median Empire
- 722 BC: Spring and Autumn Period begins in
; Zhou Dynasty's power is diminishing; the era of the Hundred Schools of Thought China
- 700 BC: the construction of Marib Dam in Arabia Felix
- 653 BC: Rise of Persian Empire
- 612 BC: Attributed date of the destruction of Nineveh and subsequent fall of
- 600 BC: Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "
") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-democratic republics. Great Kingdoms
- c. 600 BC: Pandyan kingdom in
- 563 BC: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), founder of Buddhism is born as a prince of the Shakya tribe, which ruled parts of Magadha, one of the Maha Janapadas
- 551 BC: Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born
- 550 BC: Foundation of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great
- 549 BC: Mahavira, founder of Jainism is born
- 546 BC: Cyrus the Great overthrows Croesus King of Lydia
- 544 BC: Rise of Magadha as the dominant power under Bimbisara.
- 539 BC: The Fall of the Babylonian Empire and liberation of the Jews by Cyrus the Great
- 529 BC: Death of Cyrus
- 525 BC: Cambyses II of
- c. 512 BC: Darius I (Darius the Great) of
Persia, subjugates eastern Thrace, Macedoniasubmits voluntarily, and annexes Libya, Persian Empireat largest extent
- 509 BC: Expulsion of the last King of Rome, founding of Roman Republic (traditional date)
- 508 BC: Democracy instituted at
- 500 BC: Panini standardizes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit
- 500 BC: Pingala uses zero and binary numeral system
- 490 BC: Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion at Battle of Marathon
- 480 BC: Invasion of
Greeceby Xerxes; Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
- 475 BC: Warring States Period begins in
Chinaas the Zhou king became a mere figurehead; is annexed by regional warlords China
- 469 BC: Birth of Socrates
- 465 BC: Murder of Xerxes
- 460 BC: First Peloponnesian War between
- 447 BC: Building of the Parthenon at
- 424 BC: Nanda dynasty comes to power.
- 404 BC: End of Peloponnesian War between the Greek city-states
- 331 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela
- 326 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Indian king Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
- 323 BC: Death of Alexander the Great at
- 321 BC: Chandragupta Maurya overthrows the Nanda Dynasty of
- 305 BC: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan) from Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of Babylonia, in return for 500 elephants.
- 273 BC: Ashoka the Great becomes the emperor of the Mauryan Empire
- 257 BC: Thục Dynasty takes over Việt
Nam(then ) Kingdomof Âu Lạc
- 250 BC: Rise of Parthia (Ashkâniân), the second native dynasty of ancient
- 232 BC: Death of Emperor Ashoka the Great; Decline of the Mauryan Empire
- 230 BC: Emergence of Satavahanas in South India
- 221 BC: Qin Shi Huang unifies
China, end of Warring States Period; marking the beginning of Imperial rule in which lasts until 1912. Construction of the Great Wall by the Qin Dynasty begins. China
- 207 BC: Kingdom of Nan Yueh extends from North Việt
to Canton Nam
- 202 BC: Han Dynasty established in
China, after the death of Qin Shi Huang; in this period started to open trading connections with the West, i.e. the Silk Road China
- 202 BC: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Battle of Zama
- c. 200 BC: Chera dynasty in
- 185 BC: Sunga Empire founded.
- 149 BC–146: Third and final Punic War; destruction of Carthage by
- 146 BC: Roman conquest of
, see Roman Greece Greece
- 140 BC:
was officially made a Confucian state by the imperial examination of Han Wu Di. China
- 111 BC: First Chinese domination of Việt Nam in the form of the
. Nanyue Kingdom
- c. 100 BC: Chola dynasty rises in prominence.
- 49 BC: Roman Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great
- 44 BC: Julius Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus and others; End of Roman Republic; beginning of Roman Empire
- 6 BC: Earliest theorized date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth
- 4 BC: Widely accepted date (Ussher) for birth of Jesus Christ
- 9: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Imperial Roman Army's bloodiest defeat
- 14: Death of Emperor Augustus (Octavian), ascension of his adopted son Tiberius to the throne
- 29: Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
- 68: Year of the four emperors in
- 70: Destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Titus.
World in 100.
- 200s: The Buddhist Srivijaya Empire established in the Malay Archipelago.
- 220: Three Kingdoms period begins in
after the fall of Han Dynasty. China
- 226: Fall of the Parthian Empire and Rise of the Sassanian Empire
- 238: Defeat of Gordian III (238–244), Philip the Arab (244–249), and Valerian (253–260), by Shapur I of
, (Valerian was captured by the Persians). Persia
- 280: Emperor Wu established Jin Dynasty providing a temporary unity of
after the devastating Three Kingdoms period. China
- 285: Emperor Diocletian splits the
Roman Empireinto Eastern and Western Empires
World in 300.
- 313: Edict of Milan declared that the
Roman Empirewould be neutral toward religious worship
- 335: Samudragupta becomes the emperor of the Gupta empire
- 378: Battle of Adrianople, Roman army is defeated by the Germanic tribes
- 395: Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlaws all pagan religions in favour of Christianity
- 410: Alaric I sacks Rome for the first time since 390 BC
- c. 455: Skandagupta repels an Indo-Hephthalite attack on
- 476: Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a half Hunnish and half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy; most frequently cited date for the end of ancient history
- 293: reforms of Roman Emperor Diocletian
- 395: the division of Roman Empire into the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire
- 476: the fall of
Western Roman Empire
- 529: closure of Platon Academy in Athens by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
The beginning of the Middle Ages is a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the
284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the