Kamis, 04 Juni 2009

Prehistory


Source : Wikipedia

Prehistory

Prehistory is a term often used to describe the period before written history. The early human migrations[34] patterns in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spreads across Eurasia. The controlled use of fire from ca. 800 thousand years ago occurred. Near c. 250 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens evolves in Africa. Around c. 70–60 thousand years ago, modern humans migrate out of AfricaSouth and Southeast Asia and reach Australia. About c. 50 thousand years ago, modern humans spread from Asia to the Near East. Followed by c. 40 thousand years ago, in which Europe was first reached by modern humans. By c. 15 thousand years ago, the migration to the New World occurred. along a coastal route to

In the 10th millennium BC, Invention of agriculture is the earliest given date for the beginning of the ancient era. In the 7th millennium BC, Jiahu culture began in China. By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic civilizations saw the invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. In the 4th millennium BC, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Ukraine-Moldova-Romania region develops. By 3400 BC, "proto-literate" Sumerian cuneiform is spread in the Middle East.[35] The 30th century BC, referred to as the Early Bronze Age II, saw the beginning of the literate period in Sumer and Ancient Egypt arise. Around ca. 27th century BC, the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the First Dynasty of Uruk are founded, according to the earliest reliable regnal eras.

Timeline of Ancient History

Main article: Timeline of Ancient history

Brief ancient chronology

(Common Era years in astronomical year numbering)


Middle to Late Bronze Age

The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. In the 24th century BC, Akkadian Empire[36][37] In the 22nd century BC, the First Intermediate Period of Egypt occurred The time between the 21st to 17th centuries BC around the Nile has been denoted as Middle Kingdom of Egypt. In the 21st century BC, the Sumerian Renaissance occurs. By the 18th century, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt begins.

By 1600 BC, Mycenaean Greece begins to develop. Also by 1600 BC, the beginning of Shang DynastyChina emerges and there is evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. Around 1600 BC, the beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region is seen. The time between the 16th to 11th centuries around the Nile is called the New Kingdom of Egypt. Between 1550 BC and 1292 BC, the Amarna period occurs. in

Early Iron Age

The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system, preceded by the Bronze Age. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region. During the 13th to 12th centuries, the Ramesside Period occurred. Around c. 1200 BC, the Trojan War was thought to have taken place.[38] By c. 1180 BC, the disintegration of Hittite Empire was underway.

In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrows the last king of Shang Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty is established in China shortly thereafter. In 1000 BC, the Mannaeans Kingdom begins. Around the 10th to 7th centuries, the Neo-Assyrian Empire forms. In 800 BC, the rise of GreekOlympic Games are held. The Ancient Olympic Games city-states begins. In 776 BC, the first recorded origins are unknown, but several legends and myths have survived.

Classical Antiquity

Main article: Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history, with a focus on the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Before the Common Era
Early ancient history


Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BC.

Late ancient history



Eastern Hemisphere in 323BC.


Eastern Hemisphere in 200BC.


Eastern Hemisphere in 100 BC.

n the Common Era
World in 1.



World in 100.



Eastern Hemisphere in 200 AD.


World in 300.

End of Classical Antiquity

The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages is known as Late Antiquity. Some key dates marking that transition are:


Eastern Hemisphere in 476 AD.

The beginning of the Middle Ages is a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. Aspects of continuity with the earlier classical period are discussed in greater detail under the heading "Late Antiquity". Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c.

284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius.

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